With the rapid development of information technology and economic globalization, the transformation and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry has become inevitable. Among them, the development of modern manufacturing services is an important way.
On the one hand, under the support of emerging technologies such as the Internet, Internet of Things, cloud computing, and big data, we will quickly promote the transformation of traditional manufacturing to service. On the other hand, the strategic deployment of simultaneous development of industrialization, informatization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization has provided new market demand for the development of the manufacturing industry.
From the perspective of the international environment, driven by the intelligent manufacturing model and the construction of the “Belt and Road”, the global manufacturing industry is forming an interconnected organic network. This provides an opportunity for China's products, including high-end manufacturing equipment, to enter the international market and multilateral cooperation with other countries. It is an inevitable trend of China's manufacturing industry from large to strong and achieving high quality development.
Product differentiation advantages are difficult to maintain
Conceptually, the manufacturing service industry is a general term for the various services provided by the production and use of products. The modern manufacturing service industry is an emerging industry that is gradually separated and independently developed from the production service departments within the modern manufacturing industry. It integrates the information industry, manufacturing industry, service industry and modern management methods, and continues to extend the service to the front and back by means of modern technology. .
At present, the modern manufacturing service industry has developed various forms, including professional research and development, design, testing, third-party logistics, supply chain management optimization, engineering general contracting and overall solutions, testing, maintenance, parts customization services, equipment leasing. , guarantees, reinsurance, call centers, response centers, software development and application services, product recycling, processing and remanufacturing, etc.
More and more people in the industry believe that the future manufacturing industry will be more like the service industry, and the future service industry must also be based on new manufacturing industries. In fact, the industrial development in the later stage of industrialization in developed countries has shown similar characteristics, that is, the integration of service industry and manufacturing industry has been continuously promoted.
What is the reason? Because with the continuous advancement of technology, the difference in product performance is getting smaller and smaller, the complementarity and substitution between products are constantly improving, and the competitive advantage brought by product differentiation strategy has become more and more difficult to maintain. As a result, the value-added links of the industrial value chain of the manufacturing industry have to be transferred to the service sector. Under this trend, many large multinational companies have gradually shifted from production-oriented manufacturing to service-oriented manufacturing, and the industrial value chain has clearly shown the characteristics of two large, medium-sized “dumbbells”.
Conducive to meeting the individual needs of users
At present, the overall scale of China's manufacturing industry ranks first in the world. With the deepening of the structural reform of the supply side, the development structure of China's manufacturing industry has been further optimized. However, compared with some developed countries, there is still a big gap in China's manufacturing competitiveness.
For example, the lack of a developed industrial division of labor system has not yet formed a strong industrial chain; the ability of independent innovation is weak; the industrial structure is irrational, and there are still large gaps in product quality, resource utilization, industrial structure, and informationization level with industrial powers, especially It is the development of high-end equipment manufacturing and production service industry; some enterprises are still based on high energy consumption, high pollution, high investment and low efficiency, and the development concept needs to be changed.
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From the international experience, the implementation of service transformation can significantly improve the economic efficiency of enterprises. Research shows that more and more companies' revenue comes from the customer base of the product's entire life cycle; services usually have higher added value than items and can provide a more stable source of income. For example, in the 1980s, General Electric Company's traditional manufacturing output accounted for 85% of the total, and the service output value was only 12%. However, the output value created by “Technology + Management + Service” now accounts for 70% of the company's total output value.
As far as individual manufacturing companies are concerned, the service industry and the industrialization of services have also shortened the value chain. Therefore, enterprises can focus more on the creation of core competitive advantages and the building of market responsiveness. In this respect, the transformation of Hunan Yuanda Group from a central air-conditioning provider to an energy management service provider is a typical case.
In short, through the development of modern manufacturing service industry, it is beneficial for equipment manufacturing enterprises to more fully meet the individual needs of users, improve the overall profitability, and thus enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises, and ultimately realize the transformation from large to strong.
What inspired the American approach?
The US practice and experience have inspired and valued the extension of the manufacturing value chain to the service industry.
The first is to promote the cluster of manufacturing. The data shows that the government directly supports at least two-thirds of the 260 cluster projects in the United States. Specific initiatives include: the federal government continuously evaluates successful clusters and draws on policy experience to help regional managers improve management; the federal government provides competitive grants to support states and regions to maintain modern science parks and focus on manufacturing. Technology Development Implementation Center.
For example, under the leadership of the White House, the Small Business Administration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Economic Development Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the European Defense Group have joined forces to establish an “energy innovation center”—solar, energy-efficient buildings, nuclear power, and advanced batteries. Regional innovation clusters.
As another example, the federal government worked with state agencies and the Department of Defense to build robotic clusters in Michigan, Virginia, and Hawaii. For more than four years, Michigan has rapidly grown to become one of the world's leading producers of lithium-ion batteries. At the same time, through a large production tax credit, Michigan attracted $6 billion in emerging private investment and created 62,000 jobs.
The second is to support the university's connection with the market: university seed funds and incubators help startups profit from research projects. The government continues to increase early funding for projects to support the commercialization of university research; and to continue to establish new centers of excellence to promote collaboration between emerging technologies in business, industry, universities, and government.
The third is to promote public-private partnerships: public-private partnerships are a key component of the US's successful innovation policy. Well-designed public-private partnerships not only ensure that the United States leads other countries in creating knowledge, but also gains more innovative economic value by turning inventions into products, companies, industries and jobs. One way is for companies, universities, and governments to use resources to build R&D centers, train labor, develop supply and support industries, and provide venture capital.
The fourth is to attract universities to enter the science park. The United States continues to encourage universities, national laboratories, and industry to collaborate and attract multinational factories and R&D centers into technology parks with generous tax incentives.
It is worth mentioning that in order to make up for the gap in financial incentives in offshore areas, some state governments in the United States have implemented a wider range of policy instruments, including tax breaks and research and development subsidies, low-cost loans, and free or subsidized labor training.
Gathering and growing the manufacturing service industry chain
It is undeniable that China still uses manufacturing as the mainstay, and traditional concepts and business models such as re-manufacturing light service and heavy production and light application have not yet completely changed. In the next step, we must promote the transformation from “Made in China” to “Created in China” and “Served in China”. We can focus on the following aspects:
First, increase financial and tax support for the modern manufacturing service industry. In response to the prominent contradictions and problems in the development of modern manufacturing service industry, policies and measures to promote the development of modern manufacturing service industry are formulated from the aspects of market access, financial support, tax incentives and financial support.
Second, combined with the advantages of the pilot test in the free trade pilot zone, promote the cluster development of modern manufacturing services. The key point is to guide and promote modern manufacturing service enterprises to improve their professional level and service capabilities, selectively cultivate well-known enterprises, improve industrial supporting conditions, and promote the priority development of modern manufacturing service industry clustering.
Third, focus on research cooperation between government, universities, enterprises and research institutions. We should make full use of the university's research resources, follow the basic rules of the university as the source of innovation, actively guide the combination of the pre-investment of enterprises and the transformation of university scientific research achievements, and promote the efficiency of production, education and research.
Fourth, accelerate the pace of intelligent manufacturing. With the increase in labor costs and the advancement of information technology, the intelligent development trend of manufacturing is irreversible. It is necessary to identify the point of force according to local conditions, further promote the accelerated integration of manufacturing and the Internet, and use the "Internet +" to make the manufacturing service industry chain continue to gather and grow.